A. Background of Study
English is international language that we use in the world. In Indonesia English is the second language that the student learns at school beside Indonesian language. Many methods we can use to teach English especially for teaching speaking. One of them is Total Physical Response Method.
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a method developed by Dr. James J. Asher, a professor emeritus of psychology at San José State University, to aid learning second languages. The method relies on the assumption that when learning a second or additional language, language is internalized through a process of code breaking similar to first language development and that the process allows for a long period of listening and developing comprehension prior to production. Students respond to commands that require physical movement. TPR is based on the assumption that human brain has ability to acquired natural language. In the other words, TPR tends to emphasize that second language learning is parallel to the mother tongue acquisition. It involves some natural process of obtaining the language.
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity. This method uses for teaching speaking especially for the beginner.
B. Content of Study
Total Physical Response (TPR) is a language teaching method built around the coordination of speech and action; it attempts to teach language through physical (motor) activity.
The general objectives of Total Physical Response are to teach oral proficiency at a beginning level. Comprehension is a means to an end, and the ultimate aim is to teach basic speaking skills. A TPR course aims to produce learners who are capable of an uninhibited communication that is intelligible to a native speaker. Specific instructional objectives are not elaborated, for these will depend on the particular needs of the learners. Whatever goals are set, however, must be attainable through the use of action-based drills in the imperative form. These characteristic are of limited utility to the learner, and can lead to a learner appearing rude when attempting to use his new language. Of course, as a TPR class progresses, group activities and descriptions can be used that continue the basic concepts of TPR into full communication situations.
TPR can be used to practice and teach various things. It is well suited to teaching classroom language and other vocabulary connected with actions. It can be used to teach imperatives and various tenses and aspects. It is also useful for story-telling.
Type Learning and Type Activity
Imperative drills are the major classroom activity in Total Physical Response. They are typically used to elicit physical actions and activity on the part of the learners. Other class activities include role plays and slide presentations. Role plays center on everyday situations, such as at the restaurant, supermarket, or gas station. The slide presentations are used to provide a visual center for teacher narration, which is followed by commands and for questions to students, such as “Which person in the picture is the salesperson?” Reading and writing activities may also be employed to further consolidate structures and vocabulary, and as follow-ups to oral imperative drills.
The role of instructional materials
There is generally no basic text in a Total Physical Response course. Materials and regalia play an increasing role, however, in later learning stages. For absolute beginners, lessons may not require the use of materials, since the teacher’s voice, actions, and gestures may be a sufficient basis for classroom activities. Later the teacher may use common classroom objects, such as books, pens, cups, furniture. As the course develops, the teacher will need to make or collect supporting materials to support teaching points. These may include pictures, regalia, slides, and word charts. Asher has developed TPR student kits that focus on specific situations, such as the home, the supermarket, the beach. Students may use the kits to construct scenes (e.g., “Put the stove in the kitchen”).
• Students will enjoy getting up out of their chairs and moving around.
• Student will easier to comprehension
• Easy to implement/no translation
• New playing field: no disadvantage for academically weaker students
• Trains students to react to language and not think about it too much
• Reduces pressure and stress for students
• This method most used for the beginner
• it is fairly difficult to give instructions without using imperatives
• it is quite difficult to see how this approach could extend beyond beginner level
• Moving from the listening and responding stage to oral production might be workable in a small group of learners but it would appear to be problematic when applied to a class of 30 students, for example.
Total Physical Response Method is one of method to teaching speaking for beginner which this method combines between action and speaking. This way can help the student is study English because the feel enjoy with the class and easier to remain the vocab because the practice what they say. TPR practices therefore may be effective for reasons other than those proposed by Asher and do not necessarily demand commitment to the learning theories used to justify them.